The statistic shows that nearly 20% of all human beings suffer from allergic reactions. More than 30% of people in megalopolises are predisposed to different types of allergic reactions. According to the World Health Organization's forecast XXI century will become a century of allergy.
Allergy is a condition of hypersensitivity of the human organism to certain substances called allergens which is developed on the repeated encounter with these chemicals.
Physiological mechanism includes 2 phases : acute response and slowed hypersensitivity. The main difference between hypersensitivity reaction and natural immune response consists in excessive secretion of IgE (immunoglobulins) by plasmocytes. IgE bind to Fc receptors on the surface of the mast cells and activate the release of allergic (histamine) and inflammatory mediators (cytokines, interleukines, prostoglandins). These mediators causes the development of certain physiological reactions such as vasodilation, mucus secretion, irritation of the nerve ends and contractions of the smooth muscles in the blood vessels and internals. All of these is manifested in allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, bronchospasm, eczema, hives, contact dermatitis, edema's syndrome.
The treatment of allergy includes different therapeutic approaches:
- Immune therapy: hyposensitization and desensibilization specific forms of immune therapy when a patients is vaccinated with specific forms of antigens. The core of the method consists in stimulation the secretion of IgG which bind antigen before its interaction with IgE. This helps to prevent the development of allergic reactions.
- Another form of immune therapy include intravenous injections of monoclonal antibodies anti-IgE which bind free IgE and IgE on the surface of B-lymphocytes. This causes the destruction of IgE. Anti-IgE do not bind to IgE located on the surface of the mast cells and thus do not cause the development of allergic reactions.
Anti-allergic medicines. These preparations include different categories of medicines such a antihistamines, corticosteroids, theophylline, cortisone, cromoglycate sodium. Antihistamine (H1 histamine receptor blockers) preparations of second and third generation (Zyrtec, Claritin, Allegra) are the most widely used preparations for the treatment of seasonal or all your round allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis.